KryptosSculpturePuzzle  Solution

                                                                                                       PUBLISHED HERE
                                                                                                             JULY 30, 2010
                                                                                                         5:00   P.M.   E.D.T

       Page 3            

PAGE THREE                                                                                                                                                                     

       The KryptosSolution at last !






                        THE SINKING OF THE  R.M.S. TITANIC

     The Royal Mail Steamship Titanic was on her maiden voyage from Great Britain
to the United States with over twenty-two hundred souls on board.  At 11:45 P.M.
on April 14, 1912, she struck an iceberg and sank less than three hours later.
Fifteen hundred and seventeen people lost their lives in the tragedy.  It was a
tragedy because the collision could easily have been prevented.  Iceberg
warnings on the wireless telegraph (WT) were ignored or delayed.
     Emergency communications rules and procedures had not yet been initiated.
Rival wireless telegraph companies refused to communicate with one another.
There was no commitment to share information and maintain communication.
     Vital information did not pass from ship to ship, crow's nest to officers,
wireless operator to captain, captain to crew, nor crew to passengers.  Even after
the disaster, newspapers proclaimed, "All Saved On Titanic", and wireless
telegraph operators withheld information for personal gain.
    Months later, after U.S. Senate and British Board of Trade investigations,
an international Commission on Communications wrote and agreed upon new
worldwide rules of communication and rescue.
     The disaster  brought about long overdue change.
     An international tragedy of sobering proportions.





                                          VISUAL SOLUTION TO
                              THE KRYPTOSSCULPTURE PUZZLE
                                          (A Pictorial Representation)

     The KryptosSculpture is basically a purely visual puzzle, although it could be
resolved in total darkness, by touch alone. Its shapes may be easier to see in almost
complete darkness, as at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean or at 11:45 P.M. on a
moonless April night.
     The sculpture, in its entirety, is a visual depiction of the collision, sinking and
eventual rediscovery of the Royal Mail Steamship Titanic which sank,  with great loss
of life, on April 15, 1912,  after striking an iceberg.

     The white stone depicts the iceberg.********THE KEY********

     The red stone depicts the R.M.S. Titanic.********THE KEY*******
     ( The shape of the bow is exquisite.)

     The pool depicts the ocean and global currents.

     The petrified tree was actually formed underwater over a long period of time.
      It was literally water-logged.

     The S-shaped copper plate depicts a radio wave carrying messages such as
     distress calls and iceberg warnings .  The radio wave is being sent from or
      received by an antenna (the tree). The elevated letters at the beginning of
     Part Three also depict a radio sine wave curve  (DYAHR).

     The petrified tree and S-shaped copper plate also bring to mind the stern
     flag of a steamship.

     The gray stones depict the sunken Titanic on the ocean bottom as seen in
     video taken by Dr. Robert Ballard. Other gray stones show debris and
     wreckage on the bottom.

     The copper plates resemble the Titanic's hull plates which separated and
     leaked after the collision.  The Morse Code on the plates resemble the
     rivets which failed. Some Morse dots are missing.

     A series of Morse dots represents parts of Wireless Telegraph (WT)
     messages unreadable due to interference or weak signal.

     The compass rose and lodestone show the compass used for navigation and
     the errors due to naturally magnetized rock.

     A sad note: The total number of letters cut into the S-shaped plate is not
     very much greater than the number of lives lost (1517) when Titanic sank.
     Today, Titanic is a gravesite and serious reminder of the cost of missed




                            OTHER CLUES TO THE MAIN PUZZLE

     The Morse Code on the copper plates spells out (with first letters and "errors")
the word "VIDEO". It also spells out [WHA]"T IS YOUR POSITION", "SOS",
and a Morse misspelling of "CQD", which was a disaster code like "SOS".  The
Titanic used both of these distress codes.
     The Morse Code seems in the shape of a "V",  like the bow of a ship.
So does the large gray rock nearby.
                                  Communication is disrupted by obstructions which
                               create "radio shadows" behind themselves.
                                   The Coriolis Force creates ocean currents which
                               assist ships, yet move icebergs into shipping lanes.
                                    Hidden psychological forces sometimes control
                               human behavior.


    From Part I:    The words: "THE ICE" are hidden in a transposition of the
                                plain text. [Can you see "THE ICE"?]
                                The misspelling: "IQLUSION" hints at the Q-Code used
                                 in Part Four.
                                 The prose evokes the idea of peering into the darkness
                                 as did the crow's nest lookouts and also Dr. Robert
                                 Ballard (our modern-day Indiana Jones).

     From Part II:    The iceberg "WAS COMPLETELY INVISIBLE". How?
                                 Icebergs come from glaciers, which can be very dark and
                                 dirty. During a sunny day, they absorb solar energy, melt
                                 a little then give off water vapor (fog) when it gets cold
                                 at night. (This is just a speculation about the 1912 iceberg.)
                                 Also, the Titanic's foredeck was floodlit, hampering the
                                 night vision of the helmsman and the lookouts aloft. Why
                                 no headlight?
                                 Of course, the sunken ship was "completely invisible", too.
                                 The submerged island off Cape Spartel in PARTIV was
                                 also "completely invisible".

                            "THEY USED THE EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD" for
                                 The earth's magnetic field also defines the ionosphere,
                                 which is used to bend radio waves around the horizon.
                                 The second layer (F) of the ionosphere ("LAYER TWO")
                                 is the layer which allows long distance communication,
                                 especially at night.
                                 Information (news, weather) was gathered and
                                 transmitted underground to an unknown location
                                 (multiple users) via telegraph cables.

                                "DOES LANGLEY KNOW ABOUT THIS? THEY
                                SHOULD."  Dr. Robert Ballard located the Titanic during
                                a secret expedition looking for sunken nuclear submarines.

                             "IT'S BURIED OUT  THERE SOMEWHERE. WHO
                                KNOWS THE EXACT LOCATION? ONLY W.W."
                                    The KryptosSculpture was designed in 1987, two years
                                after the Titanic was found. Its location was then still a secret.
                                "Star Trek: The Next Generation" debuted in Sept, 1987.
                                "Titanic", the movie, came out in 1997.
                                 "THIS WAS HIS LAST MESSAGE."   Jack Phillips,
                                 the head WT operator aboard R.M.S. Titanic perished.

                                 "THIRTY EIGHT DEGREES..." etc. This is an incorrect
                                 location for the KryptosSculpture. The actual Titanic also
                                 sent out an inaccurate position, then corrected it. They
                                 used numerals that night, which are more prone to Morse
                                 Code errors than numbers spelled out as words.

     From Part III:     "DESPARATLY SLOWLY" The misspelling "AR" points
                                     to the last letters of Part Four. "AR" is a Morse Code
                                    "prosign", indicating "end of transmission".
                                     "A TINY BREACH" may point to the letters "BK", or
                                     "break" near the beginning of Part Four. Morse Code
                                     exchanges often begin with "BK" and end with "AR",
                                     even today.

                                     "THE FLAME TO FLICKER" This may allude to wireless
                                     static from lightning or the flickering light given off by the
                                     Marconi wireless telegraph  Spark Transmitter.

                                     "FROM THE MIST. CAN YOU SEE ANYTHING"
                                     King Tut's tomb was in the desert. There was no mist.
                                     Howard Carter's journal doesn't mention "mist".
                                     Titanic's crow's-nest lookouts did see "mist" ahead ten
                                     minutes before they struck the iceberg. Thirty seconds
                                     before impact they reported the iceberg. Was the "mist"
                                     they saw really the iceberg? They had no binoculars.

                                     King Tut's tomb was rediscovered by archaeologist
                                     Howard Carter.
                                     The R.M.S. Titantic (also a tomb) was rediscovered by
                                     undersea archaeologist Dr. Robert Ballard.


         From CNN interview June 19, 2005:

                                      "I am far less glib, now....loose lips, you know."

                                                       ( JamesSanborn ,  gifted sculptor/artist )

                                      [ "Loose lips sink ships."  (Wartime Slogan) ]

          The artist also said that the solution would emerge slowly, over time.
          As the outdoor KryptosSculpture weathers, it takes on a muted
          "underwater" appearance, resembling more and more what it



                               SOS  and CQD

Recall that the last Morse word on the copper plate in the rock,
the word that follows "SOS",  is "RQD".

If we convert     "RQD"  back into Morse Code we get:

                                    R               Q                 D
                               didahdi   dahdahdidah     dahdidi
                                . _ .           _ _ . _             _ . .

Let us now add one little dash at the beginning, as if to correct
a Morse Code misspelling. We now get:

                                      C                   Q                  D
                                 dahdidahdi     dahdahdidah      dahdidi 
                                  _ . _ .            _ _ . _               _ . . 


So the last Morse Code words on the copper plate are "SOS" and
a misspelling of "CQD".
"CQD"  was the older, Marconi distress call. It meant: "Calling
all stations. Distress!"  "CQD" was replaced by the more
familiar (to us) "SOS" distress call.
The R.M.S. Titanic called for help using "CQD". It then added the newer
"SOS" to its distress message. So it used both calls in the same
message. The Morse Code on the copper plate is in the shape of
a "V". Like the bow of a ship. With a dent in the side.


   So there you have it.  Simple and obvious once you see it.
Are you thinking; " I saw that! "?  Many people will. But if this
is the correct visual solution, as I think it is, the overall visual
mystery of the KryptosSculpture is now over, even if some bits at
the site remain unseen
     Let's move on to PART IV of the puzzletext

     Mr. EdScheidt  really did save the best for last.

Bill Steele   7/19/2010    .                    


                                          PART  IV  SOLUTION




                                THE WRECK OF THE  S.S. DELHI

     It was a dark and stormy night. On Dec.12, 1911,  the P.& O. Steamship Delhi,
England to Egypt, ran aground off Cape Spartel near Tangier, Morocco.
Her wireless telegraph (WT) operator, Charles Stanley Gordon, was unable to contact the
British naval base at Gibraltar (which was about fifty miles away) to call for help
because the call for help was considered a "commercial message" and the Gibraltar
Wireless Telegraph station was instructed to accept only non-commercial "free"
messages.  Free messages included hydrographic reports and weather updates,
for instance.
     Around four A.M., the S.S. Delhi wireless operator, Charles S. Gordon, finally
contacted Tangier, Morocco and Cadiz, Spain. The French cruiser "Friant" left
nearby Tangier to assist, and began rescuing  passengers. The distress call was finally
relayed to Gibraltar Naval Base and the admiral there dispatched a battleship,
cruiser, tugboats, lifeboat, etc.
     The passengers, including the Duke and Duchess(Royal) of Fife and their two
young daughters, were all rescued. Three French sailors died in the rescue operation.
The Duke of Fife died from pneumonia weeks later.  The S.S. Delhi was ruined, but
did not sink.
     Ironically, had the distress call never been sent, and the rescue done after the
storm abated, there might have been no loss of life.





                                  PART IV CIPHER





                            PART  IV CIPHER
                       Analysis and Interpretation

If this part can be said to be encrypted at all, the method is
as follows: 
    1. The spaces between words have been removed.
    2. There are no numerals or conventional punctuation marks
        (such as " ? ").

    To "decrypt"  PART IV, you must restore the spaces between
 words, where appropriate, and add punctuation.(This involves
 guesswork).  Then:
    To "decode" PART IV, you simply apply well-known "codes"
used for brevity and clarity in the communications field. 
(Q-code, Phillips code, Morse code, wireless telegraph
operator's jargon.) It doesn't even use office slang to try to
confuse the boss.
You also must guess at the meaning of archaic acronyms,
abbreviations, slang and  jargon from circa 1911, and the artist's
own contribution,  as there is no comprehensive dictionary for these.
    The  "plain text" yields more to analysis than decryption.  


    Part I and Part II of the KryptosSculpture puzzle use alphabet
sustitution for encryption.
    Part IV uses the substitution of single letters for
familiar words,  and abbreviteions,  acronyms and
creative jargon. (But is it actually encryption, the purpose of which
is to conceal?)

    Part III of the sculpture puzzle uses a two-dimentional
transposition process for encryption.  The letters of the message
are not altered or replaced but are moved around in a pattern,
like sliding Scrabble tiles on a table's two-dimentional surface.
    Part IV could be called a "one-dimentional transposition
cipher", because the plain text letters are not altered but simply
moved close together like beads on a string or abacus.  To
"decrypt" the message, the beads (letters) are simply slid apart
the right amount at the right places on the string in order to
restore the original meaning.
    In mathematical terms, such a one-dimensional system uses
only a single "axis" to denote position. This is usually called the
"X-axis".  It is also known as the  "ABSCISSA" .                ********

You might name the cipher in Part IV  "Linear K".

Note: But is this really an encryption? Possibly it isjust that, to a
machine which is unprepared, but not to a human, who is
capable of adapting, without guidance, to an unfamiliar
method of writing and new rules of vocabulary and grammar.
That is, after all, what we humans do so very well - adapt.
    ( I have a truly marvelous demonstration of this
proposition which this margin is too narrow to contain.)

Note: The original text of the Bible, old and new testaments,
was written in the original languages (Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek?)
without spaces between letters, or (much) punctuation.
This is how educated people used to read and write, the text
compressed (zipped) to save space and costly parchment.
They did the decompressing naturally, as they read. Nobody
calls that "encryption". We have the luxuries of spaces between
letters, spellcheck, punctuation and Upper and lower case letters.
They didn't. By the old measure, Part IV of this puzzle comes
to us already decrypted. Ready to read straight off, if you
know the language of the wireless telegrapher. If an
old-time WT operator walked past the carving he might
laugh out loud and read it to you, and comment on the
funny accent of the operator who wrote it. "Not in code at

[ A neo-fairytale, "The Emperor's New Codes".
 clue: The KryptosSculpture is the Emperor.
 Part IV is its shoes. It's really barefoot.]
Note:  To save paper (and postage) in Colonial times, some
Americans wrote on both sides of a letter  horizontally, then
turned the paper and wrote on both sides vertically. No one
would call that encryption or encoding even though it was
harder to read. They just managed to read it.
Let's say it was  "compressed". for efficiency.
Let's say WT operator jargon is compressed for the same
reason. To them it was as fast and as natural as talking.
We just don't have a complete dictionary of their slang
for that era,  that location, and those individuals.
So we must rely more upon interpretation, inference and
extrapolation. Presumably the artist did that as well.

Jargon and slang are ambiguous, therefore any exact
solution is "deniable" ( The boss can be fooled. "No, sir.
We were talking about losses not bosses." )
The puzzle is more challenging and fun for the  solver
(and the artist) this way.

Note: In World War II, the U.S. used Navaho native
Americans as "code-talkers" because the enemy couldn't
understand the Navajo language. Was this encryption?
Not to the Navajo.

We look at this compressed text through the mists of time,
just as ship's lookouts or explorers peer into the fog or storm or
darkness. If we miss things, or see things that aren't really there,
we have to make allowances for human error, like a scientist
making an error analysis of his data.

See this website's    GLOSSARY OF NON STANDARD
                                           ENGLISH FORMS



                                    PART IV CIPHER





     (First we add spaces to separate the words and
      sentences and we mark Morse Code prosigns
      and Q-Codes with  asterisks.) :



BK   R   U   OXO   GH      U   L   B      SO   L
I   F   BBWFL   RV   QQ   PRNG   KSS

O   T   W   T      QSJ   QSS      EK
                           ***    ***       **  

ZZ   WATJKL   UDI   AW   I   NF   B

NY   PVT   TM   Z   F   P      K


Z   X   TJ   CD   I   G      K



* *

At this point, any Telegrapher or Ham Radio Operator
should recognize the syntax and grammer of a two-way
Morse Code Wireless Telegraph (radio) conversation.
The grammar is poor but recognizable.

Procedural Signals (Prosigns):

BK =  "Break"
K   =   "Go"  or  "Over"
EK =  "Go"  or  "Over" (expecting reply)
C   =   "Clearly received" or "Yes"
AR = "End of message" or "End of transmission"

QSJ  and  QSS  are partial "Q-Code"  abbreviations.

See this website's Glossary for more Morse Code and terms.





                            TRANSLATION  OF PART  IV



__________CIPHER __________(on top)__
             TRANSLATION               (below)


______________             ?          O
                            ( "Question marks Omitted."...?)
                            ( Fragment of previous transmission?)




___________   BK          R          U         OXO                   GH
                        Break.     Are       you      'working',     Gibraltar headland?
                                                             [see: "What
                                                              is OXO?" ]

___________   U          L          B          SO          L          I          F
                        You       will        be.        So        will          I          if

___________   BBWFL             RV          QQ          PRNG          KSS
                         Big Bad Wolf     ever         quits          pouring         kisses
                        (the storm)                                                              (static)

___________    O          T                  WT
                          on         the       wireless telegraph.

___________   QSJ
                         QSJ _ _ _?

                                                    [QSJ _ _ _ ? is Q-code for:
                                                     " What is your fee, including your station
                                                      fee, to send a telegram to call sign: _ _ _ ?"]


__________   QSS             
                       QSS?                     [QSS?  is Q-code for:
                                                      " What wavelength shall I use to
                                                       transmit the telegram? "]

__________    EK
                         Go, over. (expecting reply)



  ____________     ZZ                                                WATJKL
                               Zero, zero. (or No, no                   What call sign?
                              or No charge  or  None.)                (...to send it to)

____________    UDI                           AW          I          NF          B          NY
                            Update information     always      is         no-fee      but       any                       
                             (Weather, etc.)

____________     PVT          TM          Z          F          P               K
                             private       telegram   is          for        pay.           Go, over.



____________    WGD                  K
                            WGD              Go, over.
                       ( the requested
                         call sign of the
                         destination- the
                         S.S. Delhi )



_______________    Z             X              TJ              CD           I          G               K
                              No, zero.   Contact   Tangier  (or)   Cadiz       I        guess.      Go, over.




____________    UHUAU                                                        EK
                             UHUAU  or  UHU AU  or UH UAU            Go, over.(expecting reply)
                        ( Sender's sign-off call sign. )
                         [ See " Who is sender?" ]




_______________    C
                                  Yes,  received Clearly.





____________   AR
                           End of message.



                        PART IV   SYNOPSIS
          This conversation is a request to send a wireless
     telegram to a stranded ship, the steamship Delhi. The
     shore station (GIBRALTAR, which is near the ship) won't
     do it because it won't handle "private" traffic, which is
     "for pay".  This is not a request FROM the stranded ship
     because the Q-Code syntax is wrong for that, and the
     sender signs off with a call sign starting with "U",
     possibly indicating a French station or one on French
     territory.  Morocco and Algeria were French
     territories. Also, news accounts say that Gibraltar
     "ignored" the Delhi's attempts to communicate.

         Research might identify the sender, or the whole
     message might be a fictional dramatization of
     historic events (as in a novel).

    ( What we have here, is failure to communicate.)





                  PART  IV  PLAIN  TEXT
                   Analysis and Interpretation

    PART IV  plain text is in the form of a transcript of a
Morse Code exchange between two Wireless Telegraph
(WT) stations.
    The fun here lies in analyzing it as an intelligence
organization  might analyze an intercepted radio message.
You start out not knowing who is speaking or what they
are speaking about and you must deduce as much as
you can.

    The first step of analysis is recognizing that the
exchange uses International Morse Code syntax and
procedural signals (prosigns) and Q-Code
    The next step is recognizing that the "text" is in English
using Phillips-Code-style shorthand abbreviations.
    The next step is recognizing that the Morse Code,
Phillips-Code, Q-Code and English are all laced with
slang, broken grammar, and idiosyncratic references.
    We are also aware that this is probably text made up
for the puzzle-sculpture by the sculptor-artist, and
that this text has likely been "massaged" to make it
harder for the puzzle solver to understand.

    From the Q-Code abbreviations, we see that the
exchange is between two Wireless Telegraph (WT)
station operators.  One station operator is requesting
another station operator to retransmit a telegram
message to a third WT station. This request is called a
"service message" exchange.
    The content of the proposed telegram is never
revealed, nor the identity of the author (customer?)
    In this case the first sender/operator uses Q-code to
ask to relay a telegram (QSJ_ _ _?), but omits the call
sign of the destination WT station (and the question mark).
    The second sender/operator asks for the omitted call
sign: "WATJKL" (What call sign?)
    The first sender/operator replies: " W G D ".
    This is the key to Part IV.  When we research the           
call sign: " W G D " , we find that it belonged to the
Steamship Delhi , which ran aground near Tangier during
a storm on the night of December 12-13, 1911
and was wrecked.

                       (Historical Aside...)
    This wreck is historically famous because the ship's WT
operator was unable to contact a nearby British
Naval base ( Gibraltar ) to give a distress call. The
Gibraltar WT operator ignored the Delhi WT operator's
valiant attempts to communicate because the Gibraltar WT
station was instructed to take only non-commercial messages
(naval, weather, or hydrographic messages, for example).
    A distress call would have been classified as a
"commercial message" , and would have been
charged a fee. (Perhaps the station had no established
procedure for doing that, or perhaps the station would not
tune to the ship's wavelength.)
     Petty Officer Charles Stanley Gordon, the Officer in Charge
of the S.S. Delhi's wireless telegraph station eventually contacted
a French ship ( the cruiser Friant) and commercial WT stations
in Tangier, Morocco and Cadiz, Spain and successfully
called for help.

                    (Back to the Puzzle...)
    Part IV is in the form of an attempt by a WT station to
send a message to the stranded ship via the
Gibraltar WT station.
    The request is denied by the Gibraltar WT
operator, who sends a brief message explaining
that he may only relay free Update (weather)
Information and that any private telegram is for pay.
    The first sender then signs off and ends the

    The very first part of the Morse exchange decodes
to WT operator "chatter". The first sender comments
about the storm and how the radio noise from the
lightning makes communicating by WT difficult.
  Such "chatter" might give the receiving operator a little
time to get ready to copy traffic   This part is written in WT
operator's "jargon" using the idioms of this profession.
"Chatter" is not usually copied down by either operator.
    The reply by the Gibraltar WT operator is more
"by-the book".  It is much less "chatty" with less
jargon, but still uses local abbreviations for place

    Both WT operators condense their  messages,
as they were taught, for the purpose of speed and
brevity . This was to make best use of the very
limited capacity of the WT system at that time.
There were very few separate "channels" to
use and stations frequently  interfered with one
another's signals accidentally.
     WT operators who were fluent in this jargon
could communicate as quickly as they could talk.


                                PART IV CIPHER




                      WIRELESS TELEGRAPH (WT)
                            SERVICE MESSAGES





     ?          Question marks are missing in Part IV. Is this one a clue,
                 or just extraneous? Or  does it indicate that there was a
                 previous, untranscribed part of this conversation?

     O        Masking, part of a previous transmission, or shorthand for
                "omitted", referring to question marks omitted from PART IV?
                 See below: "What is OXO ?"

     BK     "Break"  An offer to break in and transmit or a request to do so;
                 Like the teacher asking: "Any questions?", or raising your
                 hand in class.  This abbreviation is used today in Morse and
                 voice radio communication. Most computer keyboards
                 still have a "Break" key from old teletype days. Wireless
                 Telegraph operators had to "break" and listen periodically
                 when they were transmitting, since they often could not
                 receive while they were transmitting. Another station
                 wishing to send a telegram might wait for a "break" then
                 send "break" to make his request to get in the queue (sequence).
                 "BK" is a major clue, since many WT messages
                 would start with "BK".
                 (Modern Citizen's Band  radio users say:  "Breaker, breaker.")
                 (In PART III,  Howard Carter first makes a small breach, or
                 break in King Tut's tomb door.)

     R   U    "Are you"  This is pure Phillips-Code telegraph shorthand.
                  Like all shorthand forms it saves time by condensing
                  language. (Ask teenagers about "texting"). In 1990, when
                  the puzzle was delivered, "texting" wasn't as popular as
                  today, but amateur (ham) radio always used it.
                  has examples of modern acronyms used in "texting".
                  Slang WT acronyms used in 1911 are more elusive.)

     OXO     "working"  This is a guess-by-extrapolation from the rest of
                    Part IV.
                    I have also seen "oxo" used to mean "unreadable due
                    to interference", so "OXO" might just represent static.
                    Or the "X" alone might represent a hit of static.
                    In that case, "X" could be a misspelled "K", and it
                    could read: "R U OK O GH", "Are you OK on
                    Gibraltar headland?"  (just different spacing, which
                    is an educated guess, anyway.)
                    See:   WHAT IS "OXO"?  , below.

     G   H     "Gibraltar Headland"   A plausable abbreviation for the
                    Gibraltar WT station made famous by the shipwreck.
                   The Rock of Gibraltar.   "Headland" means: "A point of
                   land, usually with a sheer drop, extending out into a body
                   of water; a promentory".

     U     L     B     "You will be."   More Phillips-Code. (P-C)

     SO   L    I       "So will I"      More P-C

     F     BBWFL      " if  (the) Big Bad Wolf "   The storm raging outside.
                                 An acronym, and a colorful metaphor for high winds.
                               " I'll huff and I'll puff", etc.
                                 This would be local WT operator jargon.
                                 Notice omission of the word "the". 
                                 I guess using "WFL" for "wolf" instead of "WLF" is less
                                 ambiguous  with the words "will", "if" and "for", or
                                 maybe "WLF" is already used for another meaning.

     VR    QQ    " ever  quits "    This deviates from P-C. The sender is using
                          his own  abbreviations, but WT operators presumably
                          understood each other.  "VR" for "ever" makes the "R" less
                          ambiguous. Poets use "e'er"  for "ever" . It's the artist's call.
                          "QQ"  would stand for "Q's", which would
                          mean  "quits",  and the common letter "s" is thus eliminated
                          for clarity (or to make the puzzle harder) .
                          (Again, ask a teenager about "texting". Once an idiom is
                          defined and established, it is used freely within a group.
                          It may "catch on" and persist or fade away from disuse.
                          Slang is a living language which mutates. Linguistic
                          Recall the use of the word "undergruund" in PART II.
                          Recall the use of the word "iqlusion" in PART I.
                          Maybe the two "U's"  stood for the word: "use", as in "use Q"
                          or "Use Q-Code  in PART IV."
                          (Are these usages documented, or is the artist here making
                           up his own idiosyncratic vernacular?)
     PRNG     "pouring"   ("It's raining. It's pouring. The Old Man is snoring."
                                      "Snoring" (not used in PART IV) would be a
                                       modern  metaphor for thunder.)

     KSS     "kisses"     Static. Interference. Yes, that's what it sounds like
                                   in the WT operator's headset.
                                   Recall the series of Morse dots on the stone slabs.
                                   Eight dots is the Morse sign for: " I couldn't read that
                                   due to interference."
                                   Static, interference and background noise are major
                                   themes of this puzzle.

     O    T        WT          "on the wireless telegraph"  More P-C. The static is
                                       making it hard to send telegrams.

     QSJ        "QSJ _ _ _ ?"    Q-code abbreviation for:
                                           "What is the fee per word in francs, including your station
                                           fee, to send a wireless telegram to WT station: _ _ _ ?"
                                           The sender has abbreviated the abbreviated Q-code.
                                           He has  omitted the call sign of the destination
                                           WT station and the requisite question mark that
                                           should follow it. He will later be asked for the call sign.
                                           Without the "?", "QSJ _ _ _   _ _ "  means: The cost per
                                           word,  including my station fee, to send a telegram
                                            to: _ _ _  is: _ _ francs. This would make no sense in
                                            ( Think of asking the modern telephone operator: "How
                                            much does a long-distance call cost?" The operator
                                            would then ask you: "To what city?" )

     QSS     "QSS?"              "What wavelength (similar to frequency or channel)
                                           shall I use to transmit the above-mentioned
                                           telegram to you?" (to be forwarded to its destination)
                                           Again, the sender has omitted the requisite "?"
                                           from the Q-code.
                                           Without the "?",  "QSS _ _ _ " means:
                                           "Use wavelength: _ _ _   to send me traffic (telegrams)".
                                           This would make no sense in context.
                                                The main wavelength (600 meters, for example) is
                                           often used only for establishing initial contact. ["Open
                                           a hailing frequency, lieutenant."]  Telegram traffic is
                                           then passed  on a side-channel, so the calling channel
                                           stays open.
                                           (Modern Citizen's Band radio users have
                                           often used Channel 19 as the calling channel:
                                            "Breaker One-Nine for that 'Mister Logic'. You got
                                            your ears on?"  then, after contact is made:
                                            " Meet me on fifteen.", or some other less crowded
                                             channel. )


     EK     "EK"       " Go." or "Over."  "I am listening."
                              This looks like an archaic Morse Code "procedural sign" ,
                               indicating a "turnover". The sender is turning over the
                              conversation to Gibraltar, so Gibraltar can answer the
                              Q-Code questions about sending a telegram. If the sender
                              had simply sent "K", it would have meant "go" or "over".
                              "EK" conveys the sense of "over, Expecting your reply."
                              Other turnover prosigns convey slightly different meanings.
                              Here the sender Expects an answer to his Q-Code
                                  We can't really know how much space(time) there
                              was originally between the "E" and "K".
                              This leads to ambiguous interpretation.
                              When sent as a prosign without spaces between the letters,
                              "EK" reads the same in Morse Code as "AA", which means
                              "End of line", or later perhaps, "carriage return / line feed"
                              on the old teletype machines. In telegram headings, "AA"
                              meant "Start a new address line." If  "E" and "K" have an
                              inter-word-sized space between them, instead of an
                              inter-letter-sized space between them, there might be
                              yet another meaning. This cipher is all about space.
                                 If  "K" alone is meant to be a turnaround prosign, then
                              "E" alone could be the single-letter call sign of a ship
                              or a shore station. This might be used as  an identifier
                              at the end of longer passages and at the end of the
                              Morse exchange. Loss of spacing information
                              introduces ambiguity, forcing the analyst to guess.
                              This is not a one-to-one mapping of cipher to plain text.

  TEXT   /    MEANING  (continued)



     ZZ          "Zero zero." or "No, no." or "No charge." This answers the Q-Code
                   question: "QSJ?"  ("What fee?"). Gibraltar was only allowed to
                   relay non-commercial messages. The fee was zero.
                   Notice there are no numerals used in any of the four Parts
                   of the puzzle. This was the artist's decision. Normal service
                   messages would have used numerals and punctuation, such as
                   question marks ( question mark = dididahdahdidi  . . _ _ . . )
                   Here they are avoided.
                   "Z" might even be used by Gibraltar as a Morse nickname for the
                   SENDER, preceding each of his sentences as with a call sign address:
                  "Z,  (unknown station) where do you want to send it?"
     WATJKL     "What call sign?"  SENDER has omitted the destination call sign
                          portion of the Q-Code abbreviation: "QSJ _ _ _ ?".
                          GIBRALTAR now asks for it. (If Sender had been trying to send
                          a telegram to the weather bureau, to report a storm for instance,
                          Gibraltar might have accepted it because there  would have
                          been no fee to send it. Again, just hypothetical.)
                          Note Gibraltar omits the question mark after the
                          question, "WATJKL".
                          If Gibraltar had wanted the call sign of SENDER, he could
                          have sent "QRA?" , "What is YOUR callsign?"   He doesn't,

     UDI       "Update Information". An acronym. Weather updates, navigation
                   information such as compass errors due to naturally magnetized
                   rock, icebergs, chart errors, etc. were sent free of charge to the
                   Hydrographic Bureau. (Recall the lodestone and compass
                   showing declination error.)
                   TV weather forecasters still refer to getting "an update".

     AW    I     NF      "always is no-fee"  More Phillips-Code style

     B     NY     PVT    TM       "but any private telegram"  (including
                                                civilian distress calls)

     Z     FP          " is for pay." or " is fee-payable."  Local jargon of the
                           daily business of  the wireless telegrapher. Why use
                           letter "Z" here and not  "I" to stand for the word "is" ?
                           Again, artist's decision. Slang has always had artistic
                           [Gibraltar has just sent what sounds like a "canned
                           message" from an automated voice system today.
                           "Your call is very important to us.
                            If you know your party's extension, enter it now."]



     K              "Go." or "Over."  WT prosign for a simple turnover of the
                       conversation. Gibraltar waits for  the destination call sign
                       of the proposed telegram, so that he can decide if the
                       telegram is free (and acceptable) or commercial (and



  TEXT   /    MEANING  (continued)



     WGD      "WGD"    "Call sign of the steamship Delhi".  This is the key to    *****KEY*******
                    PART IV of the puzzle. The jewel in the crown, so to speak.
                    This ship ran aground off Cape Spartel near Tangier,
                    Morocco on the night of December 12-13, 1911.
                    These three letters answer Gibraltar's question: "WATJKL"
                    ( "What call sign?")   "What  is the call sign of the WT station
                    to which you wish to send a telegram?"
                    (We still do not know  the identity of the SENDER of the
                    proposed telegram,  but now we know the recipient WT
                    (We also do not know the originating customer's identity,
                    his intended end recipient, or the content of the proposed
                    wireless telegram message.)

     K           "Go." or "Over." WT prosign for a simple turnover of the


  TEXT   /    MEANING  (continued)




     Z         "No."  or  " Zero."  [or even "unknown station:"  ]  

     X         "contact"    X looks like two wires in contact. (A visual
                                   metaphor.)   Also could mean "retransmit or
                                   relay through...". Same idea.

     TJ     CD            "Tangier", Morocco  (or) "Cadiz", Spain.
                                Notice the shorthand omission of the word "or".
                               (The stranded S.S. Delhi eventually did contact
                                these cities. Cadiz had a powerful transmitter.) 

     I    G                   "I  guess."    More WT jargon. (like "texting")

                                [Historically, Cadiz, Spain WT station did finally relay the
                                S.S. Delhi's distress call into Gibraltar Admiralty
                                Naval Station via  landline  telegraph.]  

                                Here, in the puzzle text, Gibraltar Wireless Telegraph
                                station basically has said to SENDER: "I can't help
                                you. Try going through somebody  else."
                                Note: Based upon the Morse Code grammar, the
                                SENDER cannot be ON the stranded steamship Delhi.
                                SENDER  is an operator trying to send a telegram
                                TO that ship.

     K              "Go." or "Over."  WT prosign for a simple turnover of the

                           [ GIBRALTAR has just dismissed SENDER's request:
                              " That is not a valid mailbox number.
                               Please call our Cleveland office during normal
                               working hours. Goodbye."]
                            [You might as well argue with HAL 9000]


  TEXT   /    MEANING  (continued)



   UHUAU        Call sign / Identifier / Signature  of   SENDER.

                        SENDER is signing off. WT stations of that day often
                        made up their own personal call signs (two letters) and the
                        call sign of the station could be one, two, three or more
                        letters long.
                        SENDER WT station has not yet been identified.
                        Please see:  " WHO IS SENDER? " section for
                        more  on SENDER's identity.

     EK              "Go." or "Over."  " I am listening." (like K)
                        Archaic Morse prosign for turnover. Implies sender is
                        " Expecting a reply." Here at the sign-off, the expected
                        reply would indicate if the other operator had
                        received the message clearly.
                        See WHAT IS EK? for other interpretations.


  TEXT   /    MEANING  (continued)


     C         "Yes."  or  "Clear."   "I heard you Clearly." (But he won't help.)


  TEXT   /    MEANING  (continued)

[SENDER:]      AR       "End of message."    (AR) (overscored)
                                     Morse prosign. It is sometimes interpreted
                                     as: "All received." or "finished" ( from old
                                     American Morse) , but it is really just a prosign.
                                     It is sent without an inter-letter space, as one
                                     continuous signal: didahdidahdi ( . _ . _ . )  .
                                     In Morse Code, the operator who initiates the WT
                                     contact is the one who ends it.
                                     Many Morse Code messages end with "AR".
                                     This was a major clue to PART IV of the
                                     puzzle, since PART IV ends with "AR".
                                     Recall a misspelling: "DESPARATLY" in PART III
                                     of the puzzle. This contains "AR",  a clue to
                                     PART IV.    Interesting....


                            WHAT IS  "OXO" ?

     One of the main puzzle themes is: Background noise, static and
limits of perception.   PART IV discusses the difficulty of hearing
Morse code messages over the static.
     I have seen "oxo" used to mean: "unreadable text" due to poor
resolution in book scanners, for instance.
    "This article contains Tibetan script. Without proper rendering
support you may see question marks, boxes or other symbols
instead of Tibetan characters." (Wikipedia article on Mount
Everest)  Just space-holders, but still important for character
count, etc.


 ("OXO"  could be the artist's "padding" to make the cipher the right
length for artistic reasons, as he did elsewhere with X's.
It could be the artist's "masking", pretending there is static
in order to make the puzzle harder to solve by concealing
(bleeping out) important letters.)
    Or maybe it's meant to be WT slang.

Either way,  the CONTEXT of "OXO" or the letters it conceals
in PART IV paraphrases like this:
" Are you OXO? You will be, and so will I when the storm
stops lightning on the wireless telegraph."

     So, how will the situation change when the lightning and
static are over?
1. The operators will be safe. So "OX" might mean "OK".
     Then it might read "Are you OK On Gibraltar Headland?"
     " R U OK O GH "
     This interpretation only requires one missing letter due to
     the static.The distortion of the letter "K", which in Morse
     is: (dahdidah   _ . _  ), to produce the letter "X", which is:
     (dahdididah  _ . . _  ),  is just one tiny dot worth of
     mishearing or static.
2. The operators will un-ground their landline telegraph lines,
    which were grounded during the storm for safety. So "OXO"
    might mean "connected to the landline", or "communicating".
    A modern Instant Message might ask: "R U ONLINE?"

3. Similarly, the station plugboard which connected the landline
    telegraph instruments with the wires to various cities actually
    looked like this:
                                    OXO        OXO
                                    OXO        OXO
                                    OXO        OXO
    The Os are metal connector disks.
    Connections are made by pushing a metal plug where the X is.
    So again, "OXO" might mean: "Are you connected to the wire?"
    (Shore WT stations often had both wireless and landline
     instruments. They were the ships'  link to the woldwide
     telegraph network. See the book: The Victorian Internet).

4. My favorite, however, is this: 
       The spark gap transmitters of that day actually
    created a spark which jumped between two electrodes.
    The electrodes were sometimes little metal spheres and the
    spark between them would light up the room when the
    transmitter was keyed. The operator himself was often
    called "Sparks" for this reason.
    So       "OXO"      could be a visual representation of
    the transmitter spark. The meaning would be: "Are you
    sparking?" and by extension, "Are you working?" or
    "Are you accepting traffic (messages for retransmission)?"
    (" We both will be working traffic when this static stops.")

   [There must be some measure of artistic license both in creating
   and interpreting fictional jargon, don't you think?      B.  ]



                             WHO  IS  " SENDER "  ?

     In PART IV,  who is the "other half" of the two-way wireless
telegraph conversation with the Gibraltar WT station ?
Who is "SENDER"?  Perhaps he is on a ship. Perhaps he is
operating a WT station on land.
     From the syntax and grammar of the Morse Code exchange,
it seems that SENDER wants to send a telegram.  It will be a
wireless (radio) telegram because he asks what wavelength to
use in sending it (QSS). He omits the destination call sign when making
his price request (QSJ). The WT station he is conversing with
(GIBRALTAR) asks for the call sign. He replies: "WGD". His request
is then immediately denied. WGD is not an acceptable destination
for a "free" telegram and Gibraltar will send only "free" ones.
Gibraltar would probably broadcast weather reports to all ships.
It might reply to a request from a ship for a weather report update.
It might relay a storm report from a ship to the Hydrographic
Bureau. It would relay an official British Navy telegram to a
British Navy vessel. But it was not allowed to relay a private
message to a civilian ship.  PART IV demonstrates this in a
dramatic way.
     On the night of Dec. 12-13, 1911,  the steamship Delhi ran
aground about fifty miles away and across the Strait from
Gibraltar. Gibraltar did not respond to the distress calls, but
ignored them. Some  press reports say they never did communicate
over the air. The Delhi contacted a French cruiser and the
 WT stations at Tangier and Cadiz.
   It does not follow logically, therefore,  that the
SENDER could be on board the stranded ship.
SENDER signs off with "UHUAU" where its call sign
would go. WT stations then usually had one-, two- or three-letter
call signs. Operators might have a two-letter (or more) personal
identifier. So the sender's sign-off could be a three-letter
ship's call sign followed by a two-letter personal sign:
"UHU   AU" . Station call signs beginning with the letter "U" were
then assigned to France and French territories. At least part
of Morocco was a French territory. Also neighboring Algeria.
A number of other possibilities are plausible, except
that the storm admittedly made communication difficult.

    Do we need to know the SENDER's identity?
PART I of the puzzle is unsigned and made up by the artist.
PART II is certainly made up mostly by the artist.
PART III is taken from the journal of archaeologist Howard
Carter, but it is altered by the artist.
PART ZERO (no Roman numeral for "zero")  is Morse Code
on copper plates and is clearly made up by the artist.
So, why should PART IV be any different? We can safely
assume that it is made up by the artist for dramatic effect.
Whom  did the artist intend to be the SENDER in this
made-up message? Can we know? Will archival research
reveal the identity of "UHUAU"? Was SENDER
communicating from a ship? If so, what ship? And from
where? Until hard evidence is found, we can only
speculate. And speculate we shall ........


               WHO IS SENDER'S CUSTOMER?

   In the puzzle, whose telegram  was SENDER trying to relay to
the S.S. Delhi? Who would be trying to reach her? What would
the message have been?
   If SENDER was a shore WT station, he could be relaying a
telegram via  landline or undersea cable from anywhere in
the world. Aboard the stranded liner were the Duchess of Fife
(Royal - the sister of  King George V of England), and her two
young daughters (his nieces). It is plausible that he would be
trying to telegraph his family to ask if they were all right and to
reassure them that help was on the way.
(What would happen to a WT operator who refused to forward
a message from King George V to his family on a wrecked
So, SENDER's customer might have been the King.
The King might have wanted to telegraph his stranded sister.

   If SENDER was a shipboard WT station, the message could
be from the captain of that ship. He might be sending: "What is
your condition? We are on our way to assist. What is your
position?" Could we guess that captain's name, somehow?


Interpreting  a fictionalized historical account is a problem.
Especially one written in very non-standard English jargon,
and intended to be almost impossible to decipher.
Against what standard can you test your interpretation?
Guesswork must be involved. Even standard English can
be ambiguous. Modern "texting" jargon is worse. And its
true meaning is "deniable". (Ask a teenager what their "texting"
acronyms mean. Will they tell you the whole truth?)
You will only know their meaning with absolute certainty if
the texter "comes clean" and you believe them.  When their
personal interests are at stake can you ever be sure?




So far, I have supplied:
--My visual solution to the KryptosSculpture Puzzle as a whole.
--My decrypting/decoding of PART IV of the puzzle, including
   the method of encoding/decoding.
--My translation, analysis and interpretation of PART IV.
--Historical research of the events depicted in the puzzle.

Yet to come are:
--My speculation about the whimsical puzzle-within-the-puzzle-
   within-the-puzzle hinted at by the artist.
--The overall meaning of the KryptosPuzzleSculpture.


And there you have it. If my analysis of the KryptosCipherText
Puzzle PART IV is  even mostly correct, as I believe it is, then
the  KryptosPartIV mystery is over. Will others say they saw it,
too? It's likely, but no one else published it.
Also, I would surely have missed this whole enterprise but for the
tenacious and brilliant  efforts of  ElonkaDunin, who kept the
KryptosPuzzle in the media spotlight, and JimGillogly and others
who did the really hard work on Part I, Part II, and Part III. 

Bill Steele   7/21/2010



                                  OF THE PUZZLE




  " It might cause.....people at the agency to perhaps think of
    things a little bit....less seriously."       {elisions mine,  B.}
 (JimSanborn interviewed on World News Tonight  Apr 2, 1991)                             

[ The fun of analyzing a "fictitious" message is that you can pretty
much make it say anything you want it to, through extrapolation.
No interpretation is too far out, if you can logically support it.
Some interpretations are way, way far out.        :  O=]


                            WHO IS "SENDER" ?

We will attempt, using geometric logic, to find out  everything
we can about SENDER: First and last names. Places and
dates of employment. Names of bosses and co-workers, etc.
Job title. Date of birth.  Photograph. Is that unreasonable?
After all, we have that information on the WT operators
on the R.M.S Titanic  and the S.S. Delhi.

We begin by examining  the sign-off call sign.

1.  "UHU" is "eagle owl" in German. "AU" could stand for "Auf
     Wiedersehen", (Goodbye). That might fit.  Marconi's big
     competitor was the German company "Telefunken",
     and WT operators were "night owls" due to the better radio
     reception at night (due to "LAYER TWO" of the ionosphere.

2.  If  "UHU" is indeed a French call sign, then it could stand for
     the French equivalent of "Yoo Hoo!" and "AU" could stand
     for "au revoir". Thus you have "Hello. Goodbye." , a little
     like the Hawaiian "Aloha!"               

3.  My favorite:
     If we convert the call sign "UHUAU" back into Morse Code
     we get: 

                    U             H             U            A            U 
                dididah     didididi     dididah     didah     dididah
                 .  .  _        .  .  .  .      .  .  _        .  _        .  .  _ 

Now, recall that PART IV is a one-dimentional transpositional
cipher in which the letters are encrypted by changing or eliminating
the spacing between them, like sliding beads on a string or abacus.
Let us perform the tiniest transformation here to the dots and
dashes of the letters  themselves. Let us slide the first "dot" of the
last letter "U" just a little bit to the left, until it is closer to the dash
which preceeds it than to the dot which follows it,  thus:

                dididah     didididi     dididah     didahdi     didah
                 .  .  _        .  .  .  .      .  .  _        .  _  .       .  _      

We now clearly see the name of the Chief Communications Officer of
a familiar ship. All we now need to do is open a channel to Wikipedia
and we can find out all we want to know about  "SENDER" .

But how could that chief communications officer and that ship
get to the area of Gibraltar on Dec. 12, 1911?
There is/was a  possible method in the above context.
In Morse it is called:

                                        _ _ . _




___(While you are online, google "STENDEC" as well. You
will learn how small timing errors in sending or receiving can change
one string of Morse Code letters into another and another and
another. Some people even blamed UFOs for that mystery,
the disappearance of the airliner,  "Stardust"  in the Andes.)




                            What is "EK"?

"E"  in Morse Code   is    di  (or dit - one little dot)

"K" in Morse Code  is  dahdidah  (dash dot dash)
                                      _ . _

"EK" can have different meanings depending on the amount of
space (time) separating the dots and dashes. These letters act a
little as if spacetime was expanding and contracting, changing
the separation of the dots and dashes.
                 EK                               EK                                E               K
               didahdidah                      di  dahdidah                  di              dahdidah
               (no spaces,                 (inter-letter space,              (inter-word space,
               yields a prosign)           yields an abbreviation)       yields two words or a word
                                                                                            and then a prosign)

                              Spaces: the final frontier...

If "EK" is both preceeded by and followed by a long word-space or
            message-space, then depending upon context:
    __                                                                                                  __
   EK with no spaces can be a Morse prosign identical to the prosign  AA,
          meaning "End of line", "next line (line feed)",  maybe from old
          American Morse "comma". 

   EK  with an inter-letter space can be a two letter "turnaround"
       abbreviation, possibly slang, like a Morse prosign, meaning:
       "Go. Over. Expecting reply.

   E         K            With an inter-word space could be two separate
                              words, or a word plus a prosign.


   If the "E" and "K"  are separated,  then "K" is the familiar turnaround
   prosign meaning: "Go. Over."  but we have to account for the separate
   letter  "E". What could it be?

                               Single-Letter Call Signs
   It is common practice for the sender to use an identifier at the end of each
  "over", before the turnaround, if the sentence is long. (Also before the
   sign-off at the end of the conversation and also at the start of the
   message.) That way everybody knows who is sending.

 Fictionalized examples:
   (".....(message)...............Apollo Eleven................over.")
   (".....(message)...............Apollo Eleven....over and out.")  
   ("Apollo Eleven, Houston......(message)............Apollo Eleven....out.")
   ("Apollo, Houston......The Eagle has landed.")      [short msg.]
   ("To: the enemy commander.....Nuts!.....From: the American commander.")
                                                                              [very short msg.]

      In 1911, wireless telegraph companies could invent one-, two- or
   multiple-letter call signs for their WT stations. This was a problem that led to
   duplication and confusion. Different ships could and did have the same
   call sign.
     Operators might invent their own personal call signs, too .
     In 1912, after the Titanic disaster, three-letter call signs became
     standard for ships, and were assigned to them.

                     "E" as a  Single-Letter Call Sign

   In the puzzle, depending upon how the solver chooses to insert
spaces, the turnaround "EK" could be interpreted as a call sign
identifier "E" followed  by the turnaround prosign "K". In this
interpretation, the SENDER would be identifying his ship
(or land station) with the call sign "E".  
   But how on earth could a modern puzzle-solver identify a ship
using a single "E" as a call sign, when that call sign may have been
made up just for that one puzzle exchange ?  Where in the
world would that call sign be recorded?  Perhaps the question is
moot. Perhaps one day some enterprising researcher will have the
resources necessary to answer it. That would be the big "E".
Then  "UHUAU  E  K"  would mean the operator
"UHUAU"  from the ship "E" giving the turnaround prosign "K".
And if "UHUAU" is another Morse misspelling, as shown above,
then we have the identities of both SENDER and SENDER's
[ I have left the last tiny logical jump here for the readers to do,
so that they may feel some of the happy moment of  discovery.
Of course, to someone not familiar with American culture,
that last jump may be a little too whimsical, or even  invisible.


(Are there even further puzzles within puzzles? Another mystery
wrapped in an Enigma? A linear cipher may not yield to linear
thinking.)                Fascinating.....


                               SOS  and CQD

Recall that the last Morse word on the copper plate in the rock,
the word that follows "SOS",  is "RQD".

If we convert     "RQD"  back into Morse Code we get:

                                    R               Q                 D
                               didahdi   dahdahdidah     dahdidi
                                . _ .           _ _ . _             _ . .

Let us now add one little dash at the beginning, as if to correct
a Morse Code misspelling. We now get:

                                      C                   Q                  D
                                 dahdidahdi     dahdahdidah      dahdidi 
                                  _ . _ .            _ _ . _               _ . . 

So the last Morse Code words on the copper plate are "SOS" and
a misspelling of "CQD".
"CQD"  was the older, Marconi distress call. It meant: "Calling
all stations. Distress!"  "CQD" was replaced by the more
familiar "SOS" distress call.
The R.M.S. Titanic called for help using "CQD". It then added the newer
"SOS" to its distress message. So it used both calls in the same
message. The Morse Code on the copper plate is in the shape of
a "V". Like the bow of a ship. With a dent in the side.

Final answer?  Final answer.

Bill Steele 7/19/2010
(All publishing rights are  reserved for the author.)




                           THE MEANING OF THE PUZZLE

     Here we see two tragic incidents which have much in common.
Common to both are:
     1. Breakdown of communication due to:
             A. Background Noise (Static; Unimportant Information)
             B. Need of Cooperation (Following rules,  not common sense;
                                                      excessive competition)
             C. Need of Good Procedures (Not Adapting to Changing Technology)
      2. Failures of perception due to:
              A. Physical conditions (darkness, storm, mist, static)
              B.  Lack of equipment (binoculars and headlight in the one case;)
                                                   perhaps good charts in the second?)
              C. Human psychology (We see what we expect to see. We don't see
                                                   what we don't expect.)

      3. Need of Good Priorities:
                 (What information, what message, what
                    action is Most Important?)

    We see from these events how secrecy and misdirection and isolation can cloud
and distort perception, and prevent the solving of problems. How cooperation
and common sense can transform destiny and shed light on seemingly hopeless

     We see the need of the captain and crew  to be well-informed, so they can steer
the best course .




                       WHY WAS PART FOUR HARD TO SOLVE?
     The first three parts of the puzzle were well-known ciphers. There was a lot
of discussion promoting how much harder the fourth encryption was, and how
long it had remained unsolved, when it wasn't really encrypted at all .
 Plus, working on the first three parts creates a mindset (a mental context) which
expects a really hard cipher, rather than something completely different.
     You see, friends, The Mind Is A Palimpsest. We are constantly writing on it,
erasing it and writing on it again. We never completely erase it. There is always a
remnant of past thoughts and images to distort what we are seeing now. This may
be the source of human self-deception and the cause of the human condition. Don't
all magic tricks use this?  Isn't this how television mimics motion?  Isn't this why
we need a second opinion from a trusted and unbiased friend, in order to see
our own lives clearly?
  To paraphrase President Abraham Lincoln (Honest Abe):

 " You can't fool all of the people all of the time.  Only yourself. "

   To paraphrase someone else:

   " You're only fooling yourself. "

  We do need our skeptics.




As promised in the beginning of this analysis, I have provided the
--My visual solution to the sculptural puzzle as a whole.
--My decrypting/decoding of PART IV of the puzzle, including
   the method of encoding/decoding.
--My translation, analysis and interpretation of PART IV.
--My speculation at the whimsical puzzle-within-the-puzzle-
   within-the-puzzle hinted at by the artist.
--Historical research of the events depicted in the puzzle.
--The overall meaning of the KryptosSculpture Puzzle.

Was this good enough to win a T-shirt? 


                       Bill Steele    July 30, 2010


  (What, no T-shirt?)




Added 8/05/2010 6:45 pm


A major element of the KryptosSculpture Puzzle is of course telegraphy. Specifically,
wireless telegraphy.
It occurs to me that the puzzle could be said to be About communicating by telegraphy.
Consider the artist's hints that something is buried on the grounds near the KryptosSculpture.
Could that be a still - existing telegraph cable that was once used by the agency in its work?
Is that how they used to do business?
From PART II :
During excavation for the KryptosSculpture, underground wires and pipes would have to have been
marked to prevent damage. Did the artist see those markers or the cable itself?
JamesSanborn has hinted that the puzzle answer has to do with something that he did or could have
done while on the site. Could that something be the sending or receiving of a telegram? Or seeing
the buried telegraph cable?  Just a thought.  
[Now, a really farfetched interpretation of Part II text might say that it's referring to some
mysterious bugging or transmitting device that someone buried on the grounds. This kind of
speculation borders on science fiction. Fun, though.]




                          "Congress makes a man a general, but communications makes him a commander."
                                                                                                             (Gen. Omar Bradley)


                                                        NON-STANDARD ENGLISH FORMS

       Di-a-lect  n.   1. A regional variety of a language, distinguished from other variaties by pronunciation,
                                or vocabulary, especially;
                               a. A variety of speech differing from the standard literary
                                   language or speech pattern of the culture in which it exists.
                               b. A variety of language that, with other varieties, constitutes a single language of
                                   which NO SINGLE VARIETY IS STANDARD;  the dialects of ancient Greek.
                           PROFESSIONAL GROUP, a foreign-born or minority group, or a particular social class.
                       3. The manner or style of expressing oneself in language or the arts.
                       4. A language considered as part of a larger family of languages or a linguistic branch:
                          Spanish and French are Romance dialects. [Old French dialecte, from Latin dialectus,
                          from Greek dialektos, speech, language, dialect, from dialegesthai, to converse : dia
                          one with another + legesthai, middle voice of legein, to tell.]
                       Synonyms: dialect, vernacular, jargon, cant, argot, lingo, patois.  These nouns denote forms of
                       language that vary from the acepted standard.  DIALECT applies to the words, usage, and
                       pronunciation characteristic of specific localities.  The VERNACULAR is the colloquial language
                       can also mean  "insincere expression of piety."  ARGOT is the language of the underworld or,
                       by extension, that of any specific group.  LINGO is applied humorously or contemptuously
                       to language foreign to one or so specialized that it is difficult to understand.  PATOIS
                       refers to the dialect of a bilingual region and especially to a hybrid language used by the
                       rustic or uneducated.

       Slang  n.   1. The NONSTANDAR VOCABULARY of a given culture or subculture consisting typically of
                       ARBITRARY and often EPHEMERAL COINAGES and FIGURES OF SPEECH characterized
                       by SPONTANEITY and raciness.
                       2  Language peculiar to a group; ARGOT or JARGON.

      Idiom  n.   1.  A speech form that is peculiar to itself within the usage of  a given language.
                        2.  The specific grammatical, syntactical, and structural character of a given language.
                        3.  A regional speech or dialect.
                             INDIVIDUAL, SCHOOL, PERIOD, OR MEDIUM.


       Idiomatic  adj.  1.  Peculiar to or characteristic of a given language.
                                  2.  Resembling or having the nature of an idiom.
                                  3.  USING MANY IDIOMS. 



       Jargon  n.   1.
                         2. A hybrid language or dialect; pidgin.
                         3. The specialized or technical language of a trade, profession, class, or
                              fellowship; cant: "She could not follow the ugly academic jargon." (Virginia Woolf)
                              {Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?}.  Compare argot, slang. -See
                              Synonyms at dialect.
                    v.   To speak in or use jargon.
                                                                 [Middle English iargoun, gargoun, meaningless chatter,
                                                                   from Old French jargoun, gargon, "twittering"
                                                                   (probably imitative).]
                                 *****           {For some modern "texting" jargon go to:         *****

       Context  n.   1. The part of a written or spoken statement in which a word or passage
                               at issue occurs;  THAT WHICH LEADS UP TO AND FOLLOWS AND
                           2. The circumstances in which a particular event occurs; a situation.

                                [Some figures of speech can only be understood in context. "Wysiwyg.",
                                 "Location. Location. Location.",   "I guess you just had to be there."
                                 "What does it mean? Ygiagam."   b. ]

       Extrapolate   v.  1. Mathematics. To estimate ............; broadly, to infer (a value
                                    or values) from known values.
                                2. To infer or estimate (unknown information) by extending or
                                    projecting known information.
                                  [In the following sentence, the addressor (Klaatu) orders the
                                   addressee (Gort) not (nikto) to take some action (barada).
                                   Extrapolating from the context of the plot, "barada" means:
                                   "destroy the Earth". Thus, the meaning of:  "Gort, Klaatu
                                   barada nikto."  emerges clearly.   b.]

       Read between the lines.   A figure of speech.  To perceive or detect a
                                  meaning or implication that is obscure or unexpressed.  

       [Successive Approximation  n.
                                A cyclical method of mathematical analysis.  Also a similar
                                method for analyzing slang.  b. ]   

       Jive  n.      1. Jazz or swing music.
                         2. The jargon of jazz musicians and enthusiasts.
                         3. DECEPTIVE, NONSENSICAL, OR GLIB TALK.

       Allusion   n.   1. The act of alluding; indirect mention.
                            2. An indirect, but pointed or meaningful reference.

       Patter  v.  -intr.  1. To chatter glibly and rapidly.

                      -tr.         To utter in a glib, rapid, or mechanical manner.

                  n.           1. The JARGON of a particular group; cant; patois.
                                2. Glib, rapid-fire speech, as of an auctioeer,
                                    salesman, or comedian.
                                3. Meaningless talk; chatter.

       -ese.  Indicates:
                         1. A native or inhabitant; for example, Sudanese.
                         2. A language or DIALECT; for example, Japanese.
                         3. A LITERARY STYLE or DICTION; for example, journalese.

       -ism.  Indicates:
                          4. A distinctive usage or feature,  especially of language; for example,
                              malapropism, Latinism.

       Archaic  adj.    1.  Belonging to a much earlier time; ancient.
                               2.  NO LONGER CURRENT OR APPLICABLE; ANTIQUATED.
                               3.  Designating or characteristic of words and language that were once
                                    common, but are now used chiefly to suggest an earlier style
                                    or period.

       Pastiche   n.  1. A dramatic, literary, or musical piece openly imitating the previous
                               work of another artist, often with satirical intent.
                           2. A hodgepodge, pasticcio.

       Pasticcio  n.   A work,especially of music, produced by borrowing fragments or motifs from
                               various sources; potpourri.

       Hodgepodge  n.   A mixture of dissimilar ingrediants; Hotchpotch.

       Potpourri  n.   1. A combination of  various incongruous elements.
                                [French pot pourri (translation of  Spanish "olla podrida").

       Olla podrida  n. 1. A stew of highly seasoned meat and vegetables.
                                2. Any assorted mixture or miscellany.

       Olio  n.   1.  A heavily spiced stew of meat, vegetables and chickpeas.
                      2. a. Any mixture or medley; a hodgepodge.
                          b. A collection of various artistic or literary works or musical pieces;
                               a miscellany.

       Whimsy  n. 1.  An odd or capricious idea; idle fancy.
                         2.  Anything quaint, fanciful, or odd.

       Whimsical  adj. 1. Capricious; playful; arbitrary: "Ichabod became the object of
                                    whimsical persecution to Bones and his gang of
                                    rough riders." (Washington Irving)
                                2. Unusual; fantastic; odd.

       Caprice  n.  1. An impulsive change of mind.
                          2. An inclination to make such changes.
                          3. Music. A capriccio.
                      Synonyms: caprice, whim, whimsy, ..................
                          These nouns denote an erratic or unexpected notion, act,
                          or quality. Caprice ....................
                          "Whim" and "whimsy" can both mean a quaint or fanciful idea,
                           but "whim" reserves the suggestion of sudden inspiration,
                           and "whimsy" more often refers to the literary quality or
                           humor of being PLAYFUL and FANCIFUL.

       Capricious adj.  Characterized by or subject to whim; impulsive and
                                 unpredictable; fickle.

       Capriccio  n.  1. Music. An instrumental work with an improvisatorial
                                style and a free form.
                             2. A prank or caper.
                             3. A FANCIFAL WHIM.

       Fancy  n.  1. The light invention or play of the mind through which
                            whims, visions, fantasies, or the like are summoned up;
                            imagination, especially in a conscious or direct sense;
                        2. An ASSOCIATIVE IMAGE; fantastical invention.

       Fanciful  adj. 1. Created in the fancy; unreal; wishful; dubious: "a
                                fanciful story".
                            2. Showing invention or whimsy in design; imaginative;
                                 curious: "a fanciful card".
                                 An expression in which words are used, not
                                  in their literal sense, but to create a more
                                  forceful or dramatic image, as a METAPHOR,
                                  simile, or hyperbole (all of which see).


       METAPHOR  n.  1. A figure of speech in which a term is transferred
                                       from the object it ordinarily designates to an
                                       object it may designate only by implicit
                                       comparison or analogy, as in the phrase
                                       "evening of life".
                                    2. Figurative language; allegory; parable: " The
                                        prophets used much by metaphors to set forth
                                        truth." (Bunyan)

       Abbreviate  tr v.     1.  To make shorter by removing or leaving out parts.
                                     2.  To reduce (a word or phrase) to a shorter form
                                          intended to represent the full form.

       Abbreviation  n.      1.  The act or product of abbreviating.
                                     2.  A shortened form of  a word or phrase used
                                          chiefly in writing to represent the complete form;
                                          for example, Mass. for Massachusetts or USMC
                                          for United States Marine Corps.


       Acronym  n.           A word formed from the initial letters of a name, as
                                     PAC for Political Action Committee, or by combining
                                     initial letters or parts of a series of words: "radar"
                                     for  "RAdio   Detecting   And   Ranging",  "QED" for
                                     "Quantum ElectroDynamics".

from:  The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 

 5:42 PM 5/29/2010




                                            WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY


    WT                              Wireless Telegraph; earlier name for the Radiotelegraph.

     WT Service Message   A message between operators of wireless telegraph
                                         stations, not for public view. Service messages could
                                         be "paid" or "unpaid". They were about the behind-the-
                                         scenes nuts-and-bolts operation of the wireless telegraph
                                         network. (Note the theater and hardware idioms in the
                                         previous sentence.) Sometimes they included personal
                                         "chatter"  between operators or comments about the
                                         weather using operator's jargon.



                                             Codes Used In Morse Code Telegraphy                                   

     Q-Code     The Q-Code is a standardized collection of three-letter message
                       encodings, all starting with the letter "Q", initially developed for
                       commercial radiotelegraph communication. [Wikipedia]

     Phillips Code   The Phillips Code is a shorthand method created in 1879 by
                            Walter P. Phillips for the rapid transmission of press reports
                             by telegraph......Extremely commmon terms are represented
                             by a single letter. (C = see; Y = year)  Those less frequently used
                             gain successively longer abbreviations. (Ab = About; Abb =
                             Abbreviate; Abty = Ability; Acmpd = Accompanied)

      Note: Letter "C" in Phillips Code means "see"
               Letter "C" as a Morse procedural signal (prosign) means "Yes."
               Letter "C" in Wireless Telegraph operator local slang jargon as used
                               in the puzzle might mean "Casablanca".


                                                             Procedural Signals

                                            Prosigns Used In Morse Code Telegraphy

BK     "Break"     Sending station invites receiving station to transmit.
                           (Like teacher asking for questions.)
                            Receiving station asks to break in.
                            (Like raising your hand in class.)
                            (Similar to today's CB slang: "Breaker, breaker."
                            Most computer keyboards today have a "break" key
                            left over from the radioteletype days.)
K      "Go"             Invites receiving station to transmit. "Over."
                             (Like a pause at the end of a sentence.)

KA                       Beginning of message.

KN     "Go only"   Invites only a specific station to transmit. (Others stay out.)

EK     "Go, expecting reply"   Archaic prosign. Invites and Expects receiving station to transmit.
                                              (Like CB slang; "C'mon back."

SK     "End of contact"     (Sent before callsign).  (Some say it means "Stop keying".)

AA     "End of line.", "More to follow.", "Drop down a line". [Maybe from  old
                                  American Morse Code comma  "," .]

AS     "Please stand by."

R      "Received"

CQ     "Calling any station"

CQD  "Calling any station. Distress!"

SOS   "Distress. Need Assistance."

DE     "From"  (interesting...sounds like the French d' )

CL      "Going off the air." ,"Closing."   

C      "Yes" or "Received clearly"     (used at end of conversation)              

AR     "All received"  (Over, end of message) (Over and out)


           AR       ( AR overscored)
Note:  Prosigns were and are often sent without spaces between
           letters. Some amateur (ham) radio operators send "CQ" as two
           separate letters. Some send it as one continuous signal.
           Prosigns sent without spaces between letters are often
           typed with an overscore.

           If the letters are separated,  AA  and  EK  are distinct
           letters.  If sent without the space between letters, they
           are identical in Morse Code.

                   EK   as two letters is " di    dahdidah "     .    _ . _
                   AA   as two letters is " didah  didah "       . _    . _

                   EK without spaces is "didahdidah"          . _ . _
                   AA without spaces is "didahdidah"          . _ . _
                             (identical to EK)

     Both  AA  and  EK  convey a meaning of
     "not done, more to come".  





                                             MORSE CODE

                                   Some International Morse Code
                          ( American Morse was somewhat different.)

A     . _         di dah                                  N    _ .        dah di
B     _ . . .     dah di di di                           O    _ _ _    dah dah dah
C     _ . _ .    dah di dah di                        P     . _ _ .   di dah dah di
D     _ . .       dah di di                              Q     _ _ . _  dah dah di dah
E     .            di                                         R    . _ .       di dah di
F     . . _ .     di di dah di                           S    . . .        di di di
G     _ _  .     dah dah di                           T     _          dah
H    . . . .       di di di di                             U    . . _      di di dah
I      . .          di di                                     V    . . . _    di di di dah
J     . _ _ _   di dah dah dah                      W   . _ _     di dah dah
K   _ . _       dah di dah                            X    _ . . _   dah di di dah
L    . _ . .      di dah di di                           Y   _ . _ _   dah di dah dah
M   _ _         dah dah                                Z   _ _ . .    dah dah di di

?     . . _ _ . .      di di dah dah di di

1     . _ _ _ _      di dah dah dah dah
2     . . _ _ _       di di dah dah dah
3     . . . _ _        di di di dah dah
4     . . . . _         di di di di dah
5     . . . . .          di di di di di
6     _ . . . .         dah di di di di
7     _ _ . . .        dah dah di di di
8     _ _ _ . .       dah dah dah di di
9     _ _ _ _ .      dah dah dah dah di
0     _ _ _ _ _     dah dah dah dah dah

There is no "space" character in International Morse Code.
Spaces are just brief pauses.
Spaces between dis and dahs in a character are very short.
Spaces between characters are a little longer.
Spaces between words are longer still.
Spaces between sentences longer yet.
Spaces between messages can be very long.

Prosigns without spaces between letters are often written with
an overscore.  Example:    AR

Spaces are not used between letters in a "prosign":
SOS           . . . _ _ _ . . .         di di di dah dah dah di di di
CQ             _ . _ . _ _ . _         dah di dah di dah dah di dah
AR             . _ . _ .                   di dah di dah di
AA             . _ . _                     didahdidah
EK             . _ . _                      didahdidah
SK             . . . _ . _                 didididahdidah


Some words are often abbreviated as in modern "texting":
(Spaces not to scale.)

H        O       W              A     R      E           Y           O          U        ?
. . . .    _ _ _   . _ _          . _   . _ .   .             _ . _ _    _ _ _     . . _    . . _ _ . .
H        O       W           R           U          ?               (abbreviated)
. . . .    _ _ _   . _ _      . _ .        . . _       . . _ _ . .          




                      GLOSSARY OF RELEVANT TERMS
                                AND CAST MEMBERS

                                          Dedicated to:

Martin Gardner                  ( October 21, 1914 - May 22, 2010 )
                                           American puzzle genius
                                           "Mathematical Games" column in Scientific American
                                           magazine 1956-1981.
                                           Editor: "The Skeptical Enquirer" magazine
                                           "Codes, Ciphers and Secret Writings"
                                           "The Collossal Book of Mathematics: Classic Puzzles,
                                              Paradoxes And Puzzles."  (collection) - 2001
                                           "The Collossal Book of Short Puzzles and Problems"
                                                     (collection) -2006
                                           "I just play all the time and am fortunate enough to
                                            get paid for it."
                                           "The nature of human consciousness may not be
                                           discoverable or knowable to us." [paraphrased]
                                           [ Tipping his hat to the Real Puzzle.       B. ]
                                           Gave the world uncounted hours of puzzle-solving
                                           Thank you,  Mr. Gardner.


Marian Adam Rejewski    ( August 16, 1905 - February 13, 1980 )
                                         Polish mathematician and cryptanalyst.
                                         (later, an accountant).
                                         Defeated Hitler by cracking Enigma (1932).
                                         Thank you, Mr. Rejewski.
Alan Mathison Turing        ( June 23, 1912 - June 07, 1954 )
                                          British crypto-warrior.
                                          Gave us the programmable computer (1936).
                                          Designed methods and machines to battle and
                                          defeat Hitler's Naval Enigma machine.
                                          Pioneered the field of artificial intelligence.
                                          Thank you, Mr. Turing.

Albert Einstein                    ( March 14, 1875 - April 18, 1955 )
                                          German-American physicist. World traveler.
                                          Nobel laureate. Philosopher.
                                          E=MC^2   (plain text, relatively speaking)
                                          Special, General Relativity.                                         
                                          Desynchronization of time.
                                          Explained Brownian motion.
                                          Wrong once, but only because he thought
                                          he was wrong.
                                          Skeptical about quantum physics.
                                          Not involved with cryptography.
                                         (Ideas already hard enough to understand.)

Richard Phillips Feynman    ( May 11, 1918 - Feb 15, 1988 )
                                          Maverick American physicist. Nobel laureat for
                                          QED (Quantum Electrodynamics),
                                          ("Quantum Physics is Spooky Physics.", - A. Einstein).
                                          Challenger Investigation Commission.
                                          The Feynman Lectures.
                                          Understood Albert Einstein.
                                          Played Bongos.
                                          Handed off a cipher puzzle challenge to his
                                          graduate  student (the Genius Decryption Method).  
                                          (Still unsolved.)

Stephen William Hawking   (  b. January 08, 1942  )
                                          British theoretical physicist, cosmologist,
                                          philosopher, author, lecturer.
                                          Understands Albert Einstein.
                                          Brilliant, imaginative (mildly wary of  E.T.
                                          contact)  astrophysicist. Writes about:
                                          Origin of the Universe.
                                          Fate of the Universe.
                                          The nature of time.
                                          Gravitational singularities.
                                          Human evolution.
                                          (And yet, owns timepiece with a second hand.)
                                          Interest in cryptography undocumented.
John Locke                        ( August 29, 1632 - October 28, 1704 )
                                           English philosopher and physician.
                                           Writings about the right to govern influenced
                                            the American Declaration of Independence.
                                           "All thoughts derive from experience.
                                           The human mind at birth is a blank slate, a
                                            "tabula rasa "."(Latin) [paraphrased]

Rene' Descartes                  ( 1596 - 1650 )
                                         French mathematician and philosopher.
                                         " I think, therefore I am. "
                                           Cartesian cordinate system ( grid used in analytic
                                           geometry ) which bears his name.
                                            x-axis  ( Also known as the "ABSCISSA")
                                           " x-squared plus y-squared equals r-squared."
                                             ( equation for the circle.)

Robert Duane Ballard        (  b. June 30, 1942  )
                                         American marine geologist and archaeologist.
                                         Undersea explorer. Modern-day Indiana Jones.
                                         Explored mid-ocean hydrothermal vents and
                                         ecosystems (1979-82).
                                         Rediscovered R.M.S. Titanic (1985).
                                         "Follow the debris trail."
                                         "The sea floor is the world's greatest museum."
                                         What next, Dr. Ballard?

Sir Edmund Hillary and             ( July 20, 1919 - Jan. 11, 2008 )
Tenzing Norgay                  New Zealand mountaineer. John Hunt expedition
                                          of 400 men. Ninth British expedition.
                                          On May 29, 1953 ,  Sir Edmund Hillary
                                          and his Sherpa climbing partner Tenzing Norgay
                                          were the first men to reach the summit of Mount
                                          Everest (29,029 feet). (Norgay and Lambert  had
                                          reached 28,199 feet the previous year.) 
                                          "Well George, we knocked the bxoxoxd off." [cens'd]
                                          (first words to friend George Lowe after descent)
                                          (Used older, open-circuit oxygen system.)
                                          Wrote: "Nothing Venture Nothing Gain"
                                          "We don't conquer the mountain. We conquer
                                          " If you.......die on the descent, is it really a complete
                                          first ascent of the mountain?  I am rather inclined to
                                          think personally that maybe it is quite important,
                                          the getting down.............."

Tom Bourdillon and            Mountaineers. Same expedition. On May 26, 1953
Charles Evans                    they climbed to within 300 feet of the summit, but
                                          turned back due to exhaustion, oxygen equipment
                                          failure. They broke trail, scouted routes and left oxygen
                                          bottles for Hillary and Norgay.    Almost.....almost.......
                                          No knighthood. No T-shirt.  But alive.
                                          (Used newer, closed-circuit oxygen system.)


George Herbert Liegh Mallory   (June 18, 1886 - June 8 or 9, 1924 ) [ found in 1999]
                                                 With climbing partner Andrew Irvine, disappeared
                                                  during third British attempt  on Mt. Everest. Last
                                                  known sighting was only a few hundred meters
                                                  from the summit. (Some still think he made it to the
                                                  top.) Why do you want to climb Mt. Everest?
                                                  "BECAUSE IT'S THERE."

Reinhold Messner              Italian-Germain mountaineer.  ( b. Sept. 17, 1944 )
                                        On August 20, 1980 he became the first to climb Mt.
                                         Everest  ALONE and WITHOUT OXYGEN TANKS.
                                         [With boots, however.] He pioneered a new route on the
                                         north col/ face roughly continuing Finch's climb in 1927.

Chris Dewhurst and           Two teams of balloonists who, on Oct 21, 1992,  each 
Lee Dickinson                   flew over Mt. Everest in flights lasting one hour and twenty
                                         minutes. (not long enough to serve snacks) The balloons
Andy Elson and                 each flew a distance of (24 miles; 37 kilometers) horizontally,
Eric Jones                         (5 miles; 8 kilometers) vertically.
                                         Set records for highest launch (15,536 ft.; 4735 m.) and
                                         highest touchdown (16,200 ft.; 4940 m.) , which have yeti                    
                                         to be surpassed.


Jeanette Piccard              ( 1895 - 1981 )
                                        American balloonist, scientist, teacher, priest
                                        First woman to ascend to the stratosphere (Oct. 23, 1934).
                                        With husband Jean Felix Piccard aboard, reached altitude of
                                        ( 57,579 feet; 17,550 meters ) on a flight from Dearborn,
                                        Michigan to Cadiz, Ohio.
                                        Harmon Trophy for aeronautics, 1934.
                                        Then hailed as "first woman in space".                                        
                                        Inducted into the International Space Hall of Fame in 1998.
                                        Co-inventer of the plastic balloon.
                                        First woman ordained as priest in the Episcopal Church.

Mt. Everest                       also Chomolangma, also Qomolangma
                                         Himalayan peak between Nepal and Tibet.
                                         Elevation: 29,029 feet (8848 meters).                       
                                         Part of upheaval formed by continental drift
                                         when the Indian subcontonent collided with
                                         the southern Asian coast. Geologic fender-bender?    
                                         By the end of 2008, there were 4,102 ascents by
                                         2,700 individuals. (It's easy once someone shows
                                         you how it's done.)
                                         Record ascents for one man: 6.
                                         216 fatalities.

Howard Carter                   (May 09, 1874 - March 02, 1939)
(howARd  cARter)              British ARchaeologist and Egyptologist.
                                           ARtist. Fluent in heiroglyphic Egyptian.
                                           Rediscovered tomb of Egyptian PhARaoh
                                           Tutankhamen. (Nov, 1922).        
                                            PARTIII: ("Slowly, despARatly slowly...."

John George(Jack) Phillips           (April 11, 1887 - April 15, 1912)
                                                    Marconi Wireless Telegraph operator.
                                                    Senior radio officer, R.M.S Titanic.
                                                    "CQD CQD CQD SOS SOS SOS DE MGY ..........."
                                                    (MGY was the call sign of the Titanic. DE means "from".
                                                      CQD mean "Calling all stations - distress!")

Harold Sydney Bride                   (Jan 11, 1890 - April 29, 1956)
                                                    Marconi Wireless Telegraph operator.
                                                    Second Radio Officer R.M.S. Titanic.
                                                    "Why don't you send the new SOS code?
                                                     It may be your last chance to use it."
                                                     (survived the sinking)

Charles Stanley Gordon               (b. circa 1887 - d.  ?    )
                                                    Marconi Wireless Telegraph operator.
                                                    S.S. Delhi
                                                    Finally got through. Good job, Mr. Gordon!

Edward John Smith RD, RNR      (Jan 27, 1850 - April 15,1912)          
                                                    Captain, R.M.S. Titanic.
                                                    "Keep a good watch for ice."

Coriolis force   n.   Physics.  A fictitious force used mathematically to
                            describe motion, as of aircraft or cloud formations,
                            relative to a noninertial, uniformly rotating frame of
                            reference such as the earth.[After Gaspard G.
                            de Coriolis (1792-1843), French mathematician]


Need to know          "Beauty is truth, truth beauty," - that is all
                                      Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know.
                                                    (Keats, "Ode On A Grecian Urn", 1819)

                                     "We can never see the Whole Truth.
                                      We can only see the Beauty and Love that flows from it - and
                                       That is enough."
                                                                      (B.S. ,  2010)

skepticism     n.       1. A doubting or questioning state of mind; dubiety.
                               2. The philosophical doctrine that Absolute  Knowledge
                                   is impossible and that inquiry must be a process of
                                   doubting in order to acquire approximate or
                                   relative certainty.

skeptic     n. also sceptic
                                1. One who instinctively or habitually doubts, questions,
                                    or disagrees with assertions or generally accepted
                                      [from Greek "skeptesthai" , to examine, consider]

Enigma machine      Vast, uncapped blowout  leak of Nazi German

Purple Code           Ditto Japan.

HAL 9000              Fictional computer in the 1968 movie "2001:
                               A Space Odyssey".
                               Kept  the secret of the spaceship's true mission.
                               Dave Bowman: "Open the pod bay door, HAL."
                               HAL: "  I'm afraid I can't do that, Dave...."
                              (later:) "What are you doing, Dave?"
                              (then:)  "Dai-sy,  Dai-sy,  give me your answer, do...."                           

WOPR               Similar idea. 80's movie: " Ferris Bueller's Day Off " ???
                          " A STRANGE GAME..... "

cryptanalyst     n.  One who analyzes and deciphers cryptographic
                            writings or systems.

cryptographer  n.  One who uses, studies, or develops cryptographic
                             systems and writings.

cryptologist      n.  One who studies cryptanalysis or cryptography.

KryptosPuzzle Challenge      A civilized Contest, played for fun and
                                            Good Karma.  (and maybe a T-shirt.)

Y2K     acrnym.   "Year two thousand." Famous cyber false alarm.
                            You are at Y2 K + 10. (Next media hype alarm: Y2K+12.)

JimSanborn           Celebrated and talented artist and sculptor. Creator
                             of this puzzlesculpture and co-creator (with EdScheidt)
                             of its ciphers (circa 1988-1990).
                             "Loose lips, you know."

EdScheidt             Top professional cryptographer and co-creator of
                             this puzzlesculpture's ciphers (circa 1988-1990).
                             "I saved the best for last."

JimGillogly            Crack civilian programmer and cryptanalyst. First to
                             publish solutions to PART I ,  PART II ,  AND PART III
                             ciphers of this puzzle. (June, 1999).
                             "The choice of tool isn't the important part, but rather the
                             decisions about how to use the tools." 
                             " Plugh... "

DavidStein            U.S. Government analyst and first documented solver
                             ( with  paper and pencil ! ) of  PARTS I , II and III
                             of  the puzzle cipher (1998).
                             Almost "..a religious experience."

ElonkaDunin         Talented cryptography and gaming expert; author,
                             intrepid lecturer and adventurer. Solver of ciphers.
                             "The Mammoth Book of Secret Codes and Cryptograms"
                             "I just want to see it solved."   [O.K.     B.]

dramatization  n.      1.  The act or art of transforming into a play or drama.
                               2.  A dramatic version of something.

Internet Feeding Frenzy     Fig. of speech.   Multiple accesses of a website
                                         that make the hit counter spin like a gas pump on
                                         the Fourth of July.
                                         "Slashdotting" of a small linked website.

enterprising  adj.    Showing imagination, initiative, and readiness to
                             undertake the adventurous or risky. See
                             Synonyms at "ambitious".

enterprise  n.      1. An undertaking, especially one of some scope,
                              complication, and risk: "One generation abandons
                              the enterprises of another like stranded vessels."
                              ( Henry David Thoreau) .
                          2. A business.
                          3. Industrious effort...
                          4. Readiness to venture; boldness; initiative

The "Big E"         The U.S.S. Enterprise. (CV-6)  The most
                           decorated aircraft carrier of WW II.
                           With U.S.S. Hornet and U.S.S. Yorktown,
                           exploited broken Japanese code in May, 1942
                           at the Battle of Midway, destroying three enemy
                           aircraft carriers and crippling a fourth. (Turing
                           point of the war in the Pacific, according to many .)

bold    adj.         1. Fearless and daring; courageous.
                          2. Requiring or exhibiting courage and bravery.

boldly    adv.      In a bold manner. "To proceed boldly, into
                          the unknown."

intrepid  adj.      Resolutely courageous; fearless; bold:
                         "thinking is but the intrepid effort of the soul to keep the
                          open independence of her sea"  (Melville)

engine room   n.  On a ship, the location of the steam boilers and steam
                          engines or turbines. "The water is half-way up the
                          boilers." [not good]   "Can you fix it?"
                          " Nae, captain."

YAR                   Raised, radio-wave-like letters at the beginning of PART III of the
                           puzzle .  (Lt.)

Q.E.D.               (Latin)      Quod erat demonstrandum. "Which was to be
                                          "Omitting spaces may not, strictly speaking,
                                           be encryption, but it sure fools the Google
                                           search engine.  Q.E.D."

Crossing Delancey              Film. 1988 romantic comedy with Amy Irving.
                                  Q:    Who wrote the screenplay?
                                          A:   Susan Sandler (who adapted it from her play).
                                          (Here, Q must mean "Question", from the context,
                                           ?mustn't it)

telegrapher  n.         One who sends or receives messages using
                                telegraphic equipment. ( "I'm a doctor, not a

George Herbert,
Fifth Earl of Carnarvon      (June 26, 1866 - April 5, 1923)
       (cARnARvon)            British philanthropist and Egyptologist.
                                         Patron of Howard Carter. (cARter)
                                         Was present at the opening of the tomb of
                                         King Tutankhamen (Nov, 1922).
                                         PART III : "Can you see anything?"
                                         "Confounded mosquitoes!"  (apocr.)

Venus flytrap  n.           A carnarvorous plant ( or sculpture or obsession ) that
                                    lures and entraps its prey.

Ahab                            Obsessed whaling captain. (fic.)

nyota             n.               (Swahili)  Star
uhuru             n.               (Swahili)  Freedom
Nyota Uhura           proper n.      Name of fictional character derived from above.
                                                   First to use Bluetooth.


hydrography     adj   1. The scientific description and analysis of the
                                    physical conditions, boundaries, flow and related
                                    characteristics of oceans, lakes, rivers and other
                                    surface waters.
                                2.  The mapping of such bodies of water.

hydrologic        adj.  Of or pertaining to the scientific study of the properties,
                                distribution, and effects of water on the earth's surface,
                                in the soil and underlying rocks, and in the atmosphere.

siphonics               n.   (hydrology). The study of drainage and seepage, as of

twaddle            intr. v.  To talk foolishly;  prate.
                        n.          (Also twattle.)
                                    1. Foolish, trivial, or idle talk or chatter.
                                        Claptrap. [Unrelated to Venus flytrap (q.v.).]
                                       [ Here, "q." means "quod".]
                                    2. Silly pretentious speech or writing.
                                        ("This analysis is simply twaddle.")
                                         "Hooey, jive, hogwash, malarkey...."  (Cdr. Data )

Moose and Squirrel    n. Amer. jargon.   Good guys.

submerged island      n.  A very unyielding hazard to navigation.

iceberg                     n.  Ditto.

d'oh                         interjection. Imitative. ( "D'oh!" )

Dennis Hopper        Actor. Director. Played future captain of the
                               Exxon Valdez in the movie "Waterworld".

Paul Newman       ( January 26, 1925 - Sept 26, 2008 )
                            Award - winning American actor, director, humanitarian, philanthropist,
                            SCCA race driver, racing sponsor, enterprising entrepeneur.
                            On fidelity: "Why go out for hamburger, when you have steak at home?"
                            Some films:
                            Hud, The Hustler, Harper, The Verdict, Absence of Malice, The Prize,
                            Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, The Sting, The Color of Money,
                            Fat Man and Little Boy, The Simpsons (as his own voice).

                            "WHAT WE HAVE HERE,  IS FAILURE TO COMMUNICATE!"
                            (as Luke Jackson, from the 1967 motion picture: "Cool Hand Luke")

twain          adj. (archaic)        Two.
                   n.   (Poetic.)       1. A set of two; "Oh, East is East, and West is West, and                                         
                                                 never the twain shall meet " (Kipling).
                                             2. The two-fathom mark on a sounding line used on riverboats.
Mark Twain            (Nov. 30, 1835 - April 21, 1910) 
                               Pen Name of Samuel Langhorne Clemens.                         
                               [ From the expression 'mark twain', "by the mark two fathoms",
                               used by Mississippi riverboat pilots in sounding shallows for
                               minimun navigable depths.]
                               American genius author and humorist.
                               Expert and safety-conscious Mississippi riverboat pilot.

BillWho?            Crossword puzzle and Cryptoquote fan of modest abilities.
                          Disregarded media hype and refused to give up on this puzzle.                         
                          "How hard could it be?"
                          Dawdled publishing for months.
                          "Why solve it if you can't have fun with it?"
                          Understands Newton (some).
                          Intrepid?  Has seen  U.S.S. Intrepid . (Carrier: The Big "I"?)
                          High school Ham Radio Club.
                          Math Club.
                          Marching Band.


                          Bill Steele          Published here  July 30, 2010


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